Advanced Laproscopic Surgery


This is an inflammation of the appendix – a tube of tissue that extends from the large intestine. A blockage in the lining of the appendix  that results in infection is the likely cause of appendicitis. The bacteria multiply rapidly, causing the appendix to become inflamed, swollen and filled with pus. If not treated promptly, the appendix can rupture.

Appendicitis may happen at any age but mostly occurs between the ages of 10 to 30.


* Sudden pain that begins on the right side of the lower abdomen or pain around the navel that shifts to your lower right abdomen. The site pain may vary, depending on age and the location of the appendix.
* When you’re pregnant, the pain may seem to come from your upper abdomen because your appendix is higher during pregnancy.
* Pain that worsens when you cough, walk or make jarring movements
* Nausea and vomiting
* Loss of appetite
* Fever that may worsen as the illness progresses
* Constipation or diarrhoea
* Abdominal bloating, inability to pass gas.


Severe abdominal pain requires immediate medical attention. The appendix must be removed promptly in this case.

If left untreated, an inflamed appendix bursts, spilling infectious material into the abdominal cavity. This can lead to a serious inflammation of the abdominal cavity’s lining and can be fatal unless treated immediately with strong antibiotics.

At Motherhood Hospitals,  Appendectomies are  conducted through minimally invasive keyhole laparoscopic surgery. The duration of hospital stay is about 2 days.

Gall Bladder Stones & Cholecystitis

Gall bladder stones are  pieces of solid material that form in the gallbladder, a small organ located under the liver.

You might not even know you have them until they block a bile duct, causing pain that you need to get treated right away.


The two main kinds are:
* Cholesterol stones. The most common, accounting for 80% of gallstones. These are usually yellow-green in color.
* Pigment stones. These stones are smaller and darker, and re made up of bilirubin, which comes from bile made in the and stored in the gallbladder.


* Gentic
* When your bile contains too much cholesterol
* When your bile contains too much bilirubin
* When your gall bladder can’t empty properly

Rick factors

Although more common with women over 40 years of age,  gall stones can also occour if:
* You suffer from obesity. It raises cholesterol levels and makes it harder for the gall bladder to empty completely.
* You use control pills, hormone replacement therapy for menopause symptoms
* You suffer from diabetes and therefore tend to have higher levels of triglycerides
* You take medicine to lower your cholesterol. Some of these drugs boost the amount of cholesterol in bile
* You lost weight too quickly. Then the liver makes extra cholesterol, which may lead to gallstones.
* You’re fasting. Your gallbladder may not squeeze as much.


Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs most commonly because of an obstruction of the cystic duct by gallstones arising from the gallbladder (cholelithiasis). Uncomplicated cholecystitis has an excellent prognosis; the development of complications such as perforation or gangrene renders the prognosis less favourable.

Signs and symptoms

The most common presenting symptom of acute cholecystitis is upper abdominal pain:

  • Signs of peritoneal irritation may be present, and the pain may radiate to the right shoulder or scapula
  • Pain frequently begins in the epigastric region and then localises to the right upper quadrant (RUQ)
  • Pain may initially be colicky but almost always becomes constant
  • Nausea and vomiting are generally present, and fever may be noted

Patients with acalculous cholecystitis may present with fever and sepsis alone, without history or physical examination, findings consistent with acute cholecystitis.

Treatment for Gall Bladder Stones & Cholecystitis

Treatment People with gall stones that don’t cause symptoms may never need to be treated.
Intensifying pain in the upper right abdomen along with the appearance of other symptoms means you should seek treatment.


The doctor may prescribe medications that help dissolve gallstones but these may take months or years of treatment and can form again when treatment is stopped.
Medications are prescribed for people who can’t undergo surgery.

Laparoscopic/Keyhole Surgery

Medications are not often prescribed because of a high chance of recurrence. The best treatment is to remove the gall bladder surgically. This is called a cholecystectomy.
The surgery is conducted laparoscopically and requires a 3-day in-patient stay.

Once removed, bile flows directly from the liver to the small intestine, instead of being stored in the gall bladder. One doesn’t need a gallbladder to live, and gallbladder removal doesn’t affect the ability to digest food.