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Overview

Motherhood Fertility is a well-established centre for reproductive care that offers specialist support to couples seeking fertility treatment. Boasting of a highly qualified team of clinicians and state-of-the-art infrastructure, the centre stands well-equipped to handle complex fertility challenges. We work closely with academic clinicians, ensuring that all our insights are thoroughly backed by the latest developments in the scientific world.

Our team comprises experienced clinicians who are specialized in the field of assisted & reproductive medicine and are accredited to the highest standards. They are experts in the evaluation and treatment of infertility, including IUI, IVF, and advanced hysteroscopic and laparoscopic surgical procedures. We also have leading embryologists that complete our team of fertility specialists. Also, we have a team of counsellors, dieticians, and physiotherapists at hand, whenever the need arises.

Fertility Treatments and Procedures

  • In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
  • Egg Donor IVF
  • Egg Cryopreservation
  • Ovulation induction
  • Intrauterine insemination (IUI)
  • Egg Freezing
  • Sperm Donation
  • Pre-Conceptional Counselling
  • Sperm Banking
  • Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
  • Intracytoplasmic Morphologically Selected Sperm Injection (IMSI)
  • PICSI
  • Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) for endometrium thickness
  • Blastocyst Culture & Transfer
  • Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting (MACS)

IVF cycle gets completed in four to six weeks. Around two weeks after the embryo transfer, a pregnancy test is conducted to ascertain the good news!
At Motherhood, we focus on maintaining a family atmosphere which gives you the comfort and security of knowing that you are an important patient.

In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
IVF is considered the most effective form of assisted reproductive technology. The procedure is conducted using the patient’s eggs and her partner’s sperm. In some cases, the IVF procedure may involve using sperm or embryos from a donor. IVF is also used when a couple is compelled to use a surrogate – a woman who has an embryo implanted in her uterus and carries the baby to term.
One cycle of IVF takes about two weeks and the procedure involves several steps.

  1. The first step involves stimulating ovulation to produce mature eggs. During this stage, the growth of the follicles is monitored through serial ultrasounds.
  2. The second stage is called egg pick-up or oocyte pick-up, where multiple mature eggs are retrieved from a woman’s stimulated ovary.
  3. Fertilisation is the next stage where the woman’s eggs are fertilised with her husband’s sperm in a dish in a lab under sterile conditions.
  4. In the fourth stage, the embryos are implanted in the uterus three or five days after fertilisation.

When is IVF recommended?
IVF is performed to treat infertility, after trying less invasive treatment options, including fertility drugs for the formation of egg or IUI (Intrauterine Insemination – when sperms are placed directly in the uterus near the time of ovulation.)
Often, IVF is used as the primary treatment for infertility in women over 40.
IVF may also be done in cases where there is:

  • Fallopian tube damage or blockage. Blocked or damaged fallopian tubes make it difficult for an egg to be fertilized or for an embryo to travel to the uterus.
  • Ovulation disorders. In cases where ovulation is infrequent or absent and as a result, fewer eggs are available for fertilisation.
  • Premature ovarian failure. There is the possibility of loss of normal ovarian function before the age of 40. This means that the ovaries stop producing normal amounts of the hormone oestrogen, or that no eggs are released regularly.
  • Endometriosis. Endometriosis occurs when the uterine tissue gets implanted and begins growing outside of the uterus, often affecting the function of the ovaries, uterus and the fallopian tubes.
  • Uterine fibroids. Common in women in their 30s and 40s, fibroids are benign tumors in the walls of the uterus that can interfere with the implantation of the fertilized egg.
  • Previous tubal sterilization or removal. In cases where a patient’s fallopian tubes are cut or blocked to permanently prevent pregnancy, IVF may be a good option.
  • Impaired sperm production or function. Poor mobility, low sperm concentration, weak movement of sperm, or poor morphology – abnormalities in sperm size and shape – can often make it difficult for sperms to fertilize an egg.
  • Unexplained infertility. When no cause of infertility has been found despite evaluation, an IVF can be the only possible solution.
  • Genetic disorders. If the patient or her partner are at risk of passing on a genetic disorder to the child, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis – a procedure that involves IVF – may be used. After the eggs are harvested and fertilised, they can be screened for some genetic problems. Only embryos without the identified problems are transferred to the uterus.
  • Fertility preservation for cancer or other health conditions. If a patient is about to begin cancer treatment that could potentially harm fertility, IVF is an option for fertility preservation. Eggs can be harvested from the patient’s ovaries and frozen for later use. Eggs can also be fertilized and frozen as embryos for use later.
  • Lack of a functional uterus and high-risk pregnancies. Patients who do not have a functional uterus or those for whom pregnancy poses high health risks may choose IVF. In this case another person or a surrogate appointed by the couple is used to carry the baby to term. In this case, the patient’s eggs are fertilised with sperm and the resulting embryos are placed in the surrogate’s uterus.

Tests Before the IVF Procedure
Before beginning a cycle of IVF the patient and her partner will need to go through several tests:

  • Ovarian reserve testing. This helps determine the quantity and quality of the patient’s eggs. The concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (estrogens) and anti-mullerian hormone in the patient’s blood is tested during the first few days of her menstrual cycle. Test results, often used together with an ultrasound of her ovaries, help in predicting how the ovaries will respond to fertility medication.
  • Semen analysis. If not done as part of the initial fertility evaluation, a semen analysis is necessary before the start of an IVF treatment cycle.
  • Infectious disease screening. Both partners will be screened for infectious diseases including HIV, HBs, AAG, and HCV.
  • Mock embryo transfer. A mock embryo transfer is often carried out to determine the depth of the uterine cavity to ascertain the technique most likely to successfully place the embryos into your uterus.
  • Uterine cavity exam. The IVF specialist will examine the uterine cavity before beginning IVF. This often involves a diagnostic hysteroscopy where a thin, flexible, lighted telescope is inserted through the vagina and cervix into the uterus.

Embryo Transfer and Cryopreservation.

At Motherhood Hospitals’ IVF Center, two embryos are usually transferred into the patient’s uterus and any extra embryos can be frozen for future use. Not all embryos will survive the freezing and thawing process, although most will.
Embryo transfer is a painless procedure. It is done without anesthesia. In some rare conditions, anesthesia might be required. If this is so, the doctor shall inform you, prior to the procedure.
Cryopreservation or freezing can make future cycles of IVF less expensive and less invasive.

What to expect at each step?
IVF involves several steps: ovulation induction, egg retrieval, sperm retrieval, fertilisation, and embryo transfer. One cycle of IVF takes about two weeks and sometimes, more than one cycle may be required.

STEP 1: Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation
The patient will be treated with synthetic hormones to stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple eggs, rather than the single egg that normally develops each month. Multiple eggs are needed as some eggs don’t fertilise or develop normally after fertilisation.
The patient may be given medications for the following reasons.

  • For ovarian stimulation. The patient might get an injectable medication containing a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a luteinizing hormone (LH) or a combination of both. These medications help stimulate multiple eggs towards development.
  • For egg maturation. When the follicles are ready for egg retrieval, usually after 9 to 14 days, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) or other medications may be administered to help the eggs mature.
  • To prevent premature ovulation. A certain injection is started on the sixth day of ovarian stimulation. This may vary depending on the growth of the follicles. This prevents the premature rupture of the developing eggs.
  • To prepare the lining of the uterus. On the day of egg retrieval, or at the time of embryo transfer, progesterone supplements may be prescribed to make the lining of the uterus more receptive to implantation.
    It usually takes one to two weeks of ovarian stimulation before eggs are ready for retrieval. To determine when the eggs are ready for collection, the following checks are performed:
    Vaginal ultrasound: This helps monitor the development of follicles where eggs mature.
    Blood tests: In response to ovarian stimulation medications, oestrogen levels typically increase as follicles develop, and progesterone levels remain low until after ovulation.
    Sometimes IVF cycles may be canceled before egg retrieval because of the following reasons.
  • Inadequate number of follicles developing
  • A risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome – the development of too many follicles.
  • Premature ovulation
  • Other medical issues
    If the IVF cycle is canceled, the IVF specialist might recommend changing medications or doses to promote a better response in future IVF cycles. In some cases, the patient might be asked to consider an egg donor.

STEP 2: OPU (Ooctye/Egg pick-up) and Sperm Retrieval
Egg pick-up or OPU is usually done 34 to 36 hours after the final injection and before ovulation. The OPU procedure is a day-care procedure done under anaesthesia, and is usually completed within 10 to 20 minutes. It is a simple surgical procedure performed under the guidance of ultrasound.
What to expect:

  • The patient will be instructed not to eat anything, starting from the night before the procedure. The patient has to be on an empty stomach on the day of the procedure as well.
  • The surgery is conducted using general anaesthesia.
  • Guided by ultrasound monitors, the doctor inserts a needle through the vagina and into the ovaries.
  • If the patient’s ovaries aren’t accessible through a trans-vaginal ultrasound (which is very rare), an abdominal surgery or laparoscopy (a procedure in which a slender viewing instrument -laparoscopy – is inserted through a tiny incision near the navel) may be used to guide the needle.
  • The doctor then draws back the needle to remove the eggs from the follicles. Not all follicles contain eggs.
  • Mature eggs are placed in a nutritive liquid and incubated. Eggs that appear healthy and mature will be mixed with sperm to attempt to create embryos. Not all eggs may be successfully fertilised.
  • Following the procedure, patients recuperate in a recovery room, have some food and return home the same day.Some patients might experience cramp-like pains on the day of process, which eventually subside by the next day.

Sperm Retrieval
A sperm sample is sought from the patient’s partner in the morning the egg is retrieved. Donor sperm also can be used. The sperms are then separated from the semen fluid in the lab.

STEP 3: Fertilisation and Incubation

  • Once the eggs have been retrieved, an embryologist prepares the eggs and the sperm from the partner.
  • The eggs and sperm are mixed in the laboratory to promote fertilisation.
  • The fertilised eggs called embryos are then incubated for several days.

Fertilization is attempted using two methods:

  1. Insemination: In this case, healthy sperm and mature eggs are mixed and incubated overnight.
  2. Intra-cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI).
    In cases involving severe male infertility, the embryologist can inject a single sperm directly into the egg by a process called Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection or ICSI.In ICSI, a single healthy sperm is injected directly into each mature egg. ICSI is used when semen quality or semen count is low, or when fertilisation attempts have failed during prior IVF cycles.

How ICSI is performed:
Fertility medications are usually prescribed to stimulate ovaries and produce multiple mature eggs. With a transvaginal ultrasound-guided needle, the eggs are removed from the patients’ ovaries and placed in a petri dish for fertilisation. If her partner’s semen does not contain enough motile sperm, sperm can be extracted from a testicle with a needle. If a sperm sample reveals too few sperm, a biopsy can be taken from the testicular tissue in the hope that there will be sperm attached.
Next, a single sperm is injected directly into each individual egg.
The next day, the eggs are checked to see if fertilisation has been successful. The fertilized eggs will remain in the petri dish for a few days as they continue to divide and become early embryos. Using a thin catheter, the doctor then places the embryos into the uterus.
The full IVF cycle takes about 15 to 20 days to complete – from the first day of treatment until embryo transfer.

STEP 4: Embryo Transfer
Embryo transfer is usually done two to five days after egg retrieval.
The patient is allowed a light breakfast before the procedure.

  • The procedure is usually painless although mild cramps might be experienced.
  • The IVF specialist inserts a catheter (a long, thin, flexible tube), into the vagina through the cervix and into the uterus.
  • A syringe containing one or more embryos suspended in a small amount of fluid is attached to the end of the catheter.
  • Using the syringe, the IVF specialist places the embryo or embryos into the uterus.If successful, an embryo will be implanted in the lining of your uterus 6 to 10 days after egg retrieval.

Post-Procedure Proceedings

After the procedure, you will be moved to a recovery room to rest and have a meal. You can return home after 2 hours. Once home, you can go about normal activities, but ensure that you do not lift or carry anything that’s heavy. You will also be asked to avoid vigorous activity, as this may cause acute discomfort.

Results
About 15 days after the embryo transfer, the IVF specialist will advise a blood test to detect pregnancy. Success of IVF ranges from 38% to 40% at our center.

Intrauterine Insemination – IUI
Intra Uterine Insemination or IUI is one of the procedures used for treating infertility. It involves the injection of sperms directly into the uterus. It is a type of artificial insemination where sperm that is washed and concentrated is placed directly in the uterus. This is a viable solution for women who do not have tubal issues, and for men who do not have severe male infertility. Women with severe endometriosis or a history of pelvic adhesions are advised to avoid undergoing IUI.
Our fertility specialist will monitor the female ovulation cycle, timing the insemination of the sperms to maximise chances of conception. IUI is less invasive than advanced infertility treatments and if pregnancy fails to transpire within three or four cycles, IVF and ISCI may be recommended.

At the beginning of an IUI program, our andrologist obtains a sperm sample from the male partner. The next step involves washing, processing and concentrating the sperms into a high volume at our state-of-the-art laboratory allowing only the healthiest and mobile sperms to fertilise the eggs. It is done around the time when the ovary releases one or more eggs to be fertilised. This ensures that the inseminated sperms move into the fallopian tube to fertilise the egg, resulting in a normal pregnancy. Based on the diagnosed cause of infertility, IUI is coordinated with a patient’s normal menstrual cycle or with fertility medication.

When is IUI recommended?
IUI is recommended mostly in cases of male factor infertility. However, this may not always be the case. The following are the cases when IUI is advised:
• Mild male factor infertility: When a semen analysis reveals low sperm concentration, reduced motility/movement of sperm, or abnormal morphology – abnormalities in sperm size and shape – IUI is used after specially preparing sperm for the procedure, and selecting only those sperms that are only highly mobile and normal in size and shape. IUI is also done in cases of erectile dysfunction/ejaculatory dysfunction.
• Mild endometriosis-related infertility: In this case, medications are used to help generate a good egg, after which IUI is performed.
• Unexplained infertility: When the cause of infertility remains unexplained, IUI is performed along with ovulation-inducing medications.
• Semen allergy: In rare cases, a woman may have an allergic reaction to proteins in her partner’s semen. In such cases, IUI can be effective since most of the semen proteins are removed before insemination.
• Cervical factor infertility: During ovulation, the cervix generates mucus, which creates an ideal environment for sperm to travel up from the cervix, through the uterus, and up the fallopian tubes. If the cervical mucus is too thick, the sperm doesn’t make the journey to the fallopian tubes. IUI helps deposit the sperm directly into the uterus, increasing the number of sperm as well as the chances of fertilization.
• Donor sperm: In cases of male factor infertility, when donor sperm is required, frozen donor sperm specimens are obtained to facilitate pregnancy.

The IUI Procedure
The IUI procedure is a day-care out-patient procedure conducted at Motherhood Hospitals under the care of an experienced and leading infertility specialist.
Intrauterine insemination involves careful coordination before the actual procedure and involves several steps.
• Monitoring for ovulation: Ovulation induction medications are given to the patient starting from Day-2 of the cycle. The patient is monitored with serial ultrasound scans to monitor the growth of the follicle and to detect signs of ovulation. IUI is timed accordingly. The timing of IUI is crucial, as monitoring for signs of impending ovulation is critical.To do this, a transvaginal ultrasound is used to monitor ovaries and egg growth. The patient may also be given an injection of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) to encourage the maturation and ovulation of one or more eggs at the right time.
• Preparation of the semen sample: After the partner provides a semen sample, it is washed and concentrated by separating the highly active, normal sperm from the other undesirable elements. Using a small, highly-concentrated sample of healthy sperm helps increase the chances of conception. The washed sperm is then placed into the uterine cavity with the help of a catheter.
• Determination of optimal timing: IUIs are usually done a day or two after detecting ovulation.

Duration of the procedure.
A usual visit for IUI takes about 15 to 20 minutes. The IUI procedure itself takes just a minute or two and requires no medications or pain relievers. The patient will be lying down for 20 minutes during the procedure.
However, the semen sample must be collected about an hour before the procedure. The preparation of the sample takes a minimum of one hour.
What to expect during the procedure?
– The patient will be asked to lie down comfortably and to place her legs in stirrups.
– The doctor then attaches a vial containing a sample of healthy sperm to the end of a long, thin, flexible catheter.
– The catheter is then inserted into the patient’s vagina and uterus.
– The sperm is then placed in the uterus, through the catheter.
– The catheter is removed.
After insemination, the patient is asked to lie on her back for a while. Once the procedure is over, the patient can go about her normal daily activities.
Results
In two weeks, the doctor will ask for a urine test to confirm a pregnancy. If the patient is not pregnant, the same therapy may be repeated for three to four months. In some cases, the doctor might recommend moving on to other fertility treatments.
The success rate for IUI is usually between 17% to 20%.
Other Methods of Fertilisation
Fertilisation is generally attempted using two different methods:
Insemination
Under insemination, healthy male semen and matured female eggs are combined and incubated overnight.

Intracytoplasmic Semen Injection (ICSI)
When dealing with severe male infertility, an Intracytoplasmic Semen Injection is used. ICSI is very similar to conventional IVF, wherein the female eggs and male sperms are collected from the two partners. The difference between the two procedures is the method of achieving fertilisation.
ICSI refers to a clinical method where a single sperm is picked, injected into the female eggs, and fertilised overnight in a specialised dish. This method is carried out under the supervision of experienced embryologists using the latest technology. It is a ray of hope for couples confronted with various factors preventing fertilisation.

What Does ICSI Involve?
The following steps take place under ICSI:
• Fertility medications are generally prescribed to increase ovary count and to promote the development and maturation of female eggs.
• The eggs are then removed from the patient’s ovaries and placed in a separate dish.
• If the partner’s semen does not contain enough motile sperm, it can be extracted from the testicles using a needle.
• The eggs are fertilised by injecting a single semen into each egg. The following day, embryologists check if the fertilization has yielded success.
• The fertilised eggs become embryos in a few days.
• The embryos are then transferred into the uterus.

Ovulation Induction

Ovulation Induction involves taking medications to stimulate the development of female eggs in the ovaries. This increases the chances of conception through timed sexual intercourse, or through artificial insemination.

What does Ovulation Induction involve?
Assessment: The specialist will assess your ovulation cycle through blood tests to measure hormonal levels at specific stages of your cycle. An ultrasound test is also performed to see the development of follicles in the ovaries.
Stimulation: The ovaries are then stimulated with proper medication to promote the growth of follicles which contain the female eggs.
Monitoring: The cycle is then monitored very closely with regular blood tests and ultrasounds to check for the number of follicles.
• Timed intercourse or artificial insemination: When the time of ovulation is perfect, the specialist will advise you the most appropriate day to have intercourse or to perform an artificial insemination.

Magnetic-Activated Cell Sorting (MACS)
Motherhood Fertility Centre has introduced a new generation of Magnetic-Activated Cell Sorting (MACS) system. It is an efficient method of selecting functional sperms to improve pregnancy rates. It is a technique which allows the spermatozoa with the best characteristics to be selected for use in assisted reproduction treatment. The procedure removes those spermatozoa which will die without achieving fertilisation. It only selects the healthy ones that increase the possibility of pregnancy.
This treatment is suitable for all patients, but is mainly used in the case of:
• Infertile patients who have a high level of DNA fragmentation.
• Patients with repeated miscarriages and unidentified causes.
• Patients who have been treated with artificial insemination.

PICSI
Physiological Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (PICSI) is a special sperm selection tool. In an ICSI procedure, a single sperm is selected and injected into an oocyte. Through the PICSI procedure, it is possible to determine sperm selection in the same way as it happens in human biology. PICSI technique improves pregnancy rates and reduces the number of IVF miscarriages.
When is PISCI recommended?

• Low fertilisation rates after ICSI
• History of previous miscarriages
• High-Sperm DNA Fragmentation
• Compromised embryo development

Andrology
A person’s life expectancy, be it a man or a woman, depends on how they maintain their health and take preventive measures to keep diseases at bay. Especially when it comes to men, sexual health is sometimes taken for granted.
Without proper care and a healthy lifestyle, your reproductive and sexual health will eventually go down with each passing decade.

Embryology

Embryology is the branch of biology that deals with the prenatal development of gametes, fertilisation, and development of embryos and foetuses. Embryology is a very important field of study as it helps in understanding the working of the human reproductive system and helps in treating infertility and various other congenital birth defects that occur before birth.

What does an Embryologist do?
An embryologist is a medical professional who specialises in embryology. The embryologist has an in-depth knowledge of the eggs, sperm, and the embryos. Embryologists help in assessing the quality of the eggs or the sperm and help in treating infertility. Embryologists also carefully analyze the embryo for the presence of any birth defects. The main functions of an embryologist are:
• Assess the quality of eggs and sperm.
• Review and prepare the high quality of sperm sample for infertility treatment methods like IVF, ICSI etc.
• Review and harvest high-quality eggs.
• Fertilize the eggs with sperm for In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF).
• Inseminate the eggs with a single sperm during intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
• Perform complex operations like assisted hatching when required.
• Track the growth and development of the embryo and look out for any abnormalities.
• Perform a pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to check for genetic abnormalities.
Advantages of Embryology
Embryology is one of the greatest developments of modern science. With the help of embryology, doctors can now perform various operations and procedures to treat infertility, to avoid birth defects, and so on. Embryology can help in the following ways:
• Treat infertility through techniques like IVF, ICSI etc.
• Help in the screening of birth defects, especially in high-risk groups (for instance, in case there exists a genetic disease that runs in the family, or if the couple already has a child with birth defect).
• Enable high-risk groups to get pregnant without complications (like couples who have had multiple miscarriages or women over the age of thirty-five.).
• Reducing the risk of pregnancy-loss by carefully selecting high-quality eggs, sperm, and embryos for implantation.
• Empower the parents to make an informed decision when it comes to abortion and other similar situations.

Embryology thus plays a very important role when it comes to pregnancy and childbirth. With the help of embryology, many people can successfully overcome infertility, avoid genetic disorders in their children, and lead happy and fulfilling lives.
Motherhood is one of the leading chains of maternity, childcare, and fertility hospitals in the country. Our multi-disciplinary team of highly qualified and experienced specialists includes obstetricians, neonatologists, embryologists, gynaecologists, counsellors, and paediatricians. At Motherhood, we strive to uphold only the highest standards of care.

Pro-Fertility Counselling

Infertility is clinically defined as the inability to conceive even after having carefully timed, unprotected sex for over a year. There are various causes which can lead to infertility – age, genetics, lifestyle, and so on. This could come from either partner’s side, or both. Various factors like sedentary lifestyles and unhealthy diets are contributing to an increase in cases of infertility.

Infertility can take a toll on the life of the couple. It can cause distress, depression and even create tension in the relationship. Counselling can help the couple overcome the stress caused due to infertility. Hence, an effective treatment of infertility should involve counselling to help the couple overcome various issues caused due to infertility.

Should you opt for it?
Dealing with infertility is a difficult task, and hence, couples struggling with infertility should seek the help of a professional. You must opt for counselling if you can relate to the following reasons.
• If infertility overwhelms you and takes over your life. Many people cope with infertility without any professional help. However, if you find that infertility is causing sadness, depression, or mental health issues, it is strongly advised to seek the help of a counsellor.
• If infertility is straining your personal relationships. Talking to a counsellor can be quite beneficial if this is the case. You may also opt for joint counselling with your spouse as a counsellor. This can help immensely.
• If you are considering alternate options like surrogacy or adoption. We highly recommend talking to a counsellor before you take any major decision in this regard. Opting for sperm donation, egg donation, or surrogacy is a very important decision to make. Many couples underestimate the emotional impact of such a decision and regret it later. Hence, it is important to take professional help and advice before such an important step.
• If you are thinking of living a child-less life. Accepting and realising the fact that you are going to lead a life without a child can be quite overwhelming for many couples. A counsellor can help you process the emotions and overcome it in a strong manner.
• If you are feeling indecisive or clueless in general. Taking decisions related to infertility, treatments, or adoption can be quite difficult and a counsellor may assist you in making a more informed decision.

Motherhood is one of the leading chains of maternity and childcare hospitals in the country. We offer holistic treatment and care ranging from prenatal counselling to neonatal facilities. Our experts are highly qualified and experienced, and promise the best possible treatment and care.

Fertility Enhancement Endoscopy
Pregnancy is a happy milestone for many couples. But, not every couple goes through this journey smoothly. According to the American Pregnancy Association, 1 in 6 couples struggle with infertility, where half of the cases solely involve female infertility, while the other half includes male infertility.

What exactly is happening?
Daily rigor and stress can take a toll on your reproductive system. Also, there are underlying problems in men and women that can cause infertility – like endometriosis, hormonal imbalances, a block in the fallopian tubes, irregular monthly ovulation from polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), eating disorders, stress, weight gain, cysts in female reproductive parts, abnormal sperm production, problems with the delivery of sperm due to sexual issues, overexposure to certain environmental factors, and cancer-related issues.

Needless to say, all of this can be a tricky situation. So what is the solution? Your doctor can help you in many ways to improve your fertility. But to improve fertility, your doctor needs to understand the underlying problem first. Thankfully, there are tools available to figure out what exactly is going on inside of you and how to treat it.
What is the significance of Fertility Enhancing Endoscopy Surgery?
Fertility enhancing endoscopy surgery is like a boon for infertile couples at home desperately trying to extend their family. As said before, many problems can cause infertility in both men and women. These problems can be corrected by diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy.

Diagnostic laparoscopy is a surgical procedure to examine a woman’s reproductive organs. Gynaecological endoscopy or diagnostic laparoscopy is a medical discipline that uses specially designed optical instruments to diagnose female disorders and pathologies that cause infertility problems. Here, a laparoscope, which is a thin viewing tube (similar to a telescope). is passed via a small incision into the abdomen of the patient to look directly at the outside of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and nearby organs. The doctor recommends this diagnostic test to:
• Check if there is a blockage of the fallopian tubes (which might have caused infertility)
• Examine the cause of the pain in the pelvic and abdominal regions
• Confirm certain conditions like endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, etc.
• Examine the abnormal tissue mass
Another procedure is hysteroscopy. It is a simple procedure that allows your healthcare specialist to look inside the uterus to diagnose and treat the causes of infertility.
Both laparoscopy and hysteroscopy are very useful in diagnosing the problem and treating these problems on time. They are accurate, painless, safe, and can be performed on an outpatient basis.
If Fertility Enhancement Endoscopy is on your mind, we invite you to step into one of our centers. The highly qualified team of surgeons and nurses at Motherhood, coupled with the latest advancements in medicine and technology, make for a safe and successful journey.

Semen Analysis
Semen Analysis is done to evaluate the quality of semen and the amount of sperm in it. It is mostly done for the evaluation of fertility. Infertility affects a significant percentage of couples and can be quite frustrating and heartbreaking. To know the exact cause of infertility, various tests are done. Semen analysis is just one such test which is done for the evaluation of male fertility. A semen analysis is also done to check for the success of a vasectomy.

Preparing for the test:
Your doctor will let you know the exact guidelines to be followed before opting for semen analysis. However, some general rules to be followed are:
• Avoiding ejaculation up to 72 hours before the test.
• Avoiding the consumption of alcohol, caffeine and drugs
• Avoiding hormone medications or supplements.
The sample can be obtained either through masturbation, or while having sex using a condom. Masturbation is usually considered the preferred way to obtain a clean sample. The sample should be delivered to the testing facility within an hour of ejaculation. The results can take anywhere between an hour to a week.

Parameters Evaluated:
Depending on the necessities, one or more of the following parameters are evaluated through a semen analysis:
• Sperm count: Also known as sperm density, it is one of the most commonly tested parameters, as low sperm count is one of the leading causes of infertility in men. The normal sperm count in a semen analysis should be between 20 to 200 million. A lower sperm count may be considered the reason for infertility.
• Volume: Semen volume is also an important parameter that is evaluated during semen analysis. Semen volume of less than 2ml may indicate a lesser number of sperm and excessive volume may indicate diluted sperm. Either of these can make conception difficult.
• pH: A semen analysis also measures the pH value of the semen sample. Normal pH values range from 7.2 to 7.8. Higher values may indicate an infection, while lower levels may indicate a blockage in the ducts. Either of these factors can lead to infertility.
• Shape: The test also evaluates the percentage of normally shaped sperm. If a man has more than 50 percent of abnormally shaped sperm it may cause difficulty in conceiving. The abnormalities in the structure of the sperm can be identified through the test.
• Motility: This is another major factor which causes infertility in many cases. Normally, at least 50 percent of the total sperm must move after ejaculation. Lower movement may lead to infertility as the sperm may not be able to travel and reach the egg.
• Liquefaction: Normally, it should take about 15 to 30 minutes for the sperm to liquefy. This is important as liquefaction helps in the movement of the sperm. If the sperm does not liquefy quickly, it may lead to infertility.

Motherhood is one of the leading chains of maternity and childcare hospitals in the country. We offer holistic treatment and care ranging from prenatal counselling to neonatal facilities. Our experts are highly qualified and experienced, and promise the best possible treatment and care.

FIND DOCTORS

DOCTORS

Dr. Ashwini M. Patil

MBBS, MD - Radiology
Consultant Radiologist, Consultant - Radiology
HRBR Layout, Bangalore

Dr. Dhanalakshmi R

MBBS, PGPN(Boston University)., Fellowship in Neonatal Medicine (UK), DNB
Consultant Neonatologist & Paediatrician
HRBR Layout, Bangalore

Dr. S. Giridhar

MBBS, DM(Neonatology)., MD(Pediatrics)
Consultant Neonatologist & Paediatrician
Alwarpet, Chennai

Dr. Suhaim Afsar

MBBS, PGPN(Boston), Fellowship in Neonatalogy RCPCH (UK), MRCPCH (UK), DNB (Pediatrics)
Consultant Neonatologist & Paediatrician, Consultant Neonatologist and Pediatrician
HRBR Layout, Bangalore