Lower Genital Tract Dysplasia

Female Lower Genital Tract Dysplasia

Lower genital tract diseases are abnormal changes in the lower portion of the female reproductive system which includes the cervix, vulva and vagina. These abnormal changes are called pre-cancerous lesions or intraepithelial neoplasia.

Cervical Dysplasia

It is defined as an abnormal change in the surface of the cervix which is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.


Almost all cases of cervical dysplasia are caused by high-risk types of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). It usually affects women of ages between 25 to 50, although it can occur at any age.

Risk factors

There are several risk factors associated with cervical dysplasia such as:

  • HPV infection
  • Sexuality history
  • Smoking
  • A weak immune system
  • Other sexually transmitted infections


Usually, women with cervical dysplasia don’t have any symptoms. Symptoms usually don’t start until the cervical dysplasia becomes cancer. Symptoms include:

  • Pelvic pain
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Vaginal bleeding after intercourse
  • Vaginal discharge with a foul odour


There are two tests for cervical dysplasia-Pap test and HPV test. The pap smear test is performed during a pelvic exam. The American Cancer Society recommends starting cervical cancer screening at the age of 21, regardless of the age when a woman becomes sexually active.

If cervical dysplasia is suspected in the pap smear test, then your doctor will perform a thorough evaluation of the cervix with a colposcopy. In a colposcopy, the doctor will look at your cervix with an electric magnifying instrument to look for abnormal cells.


Treatment for lower genital tract diseases depends upon the type and severity of the dysplasia. If you have been found to have severe cervical dysplasia, then the doctor will recommend removing the affected area of dysplasia. The two most common procedures for removing areas of dysplasia are the Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP) or cold knife conisation.

The LEEP can be performed as an outpatient procedure or in the doctor’s room. The doctor will ask you to lie down on an examination table and put your feet in stirrups. Then an instrument called a speculum is inserted into the vagina to hold the vagina walls so that the doctor can view the inside of the vaginal walls and the cervix.

The cervix is numbed by injecting local anaesthesia in it. An electrically charged loop made of thin wire is inserted into the vagina and up to the cervix. The loop is passed across the cervix, removing the entire area of dysplasia.

Cold knife conisation is a minor surgery in which cone-shaped portion of the cervix is removed using a scalpel.


It is also called vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) which starts inside the vagina. It is a condition in which the vagina undergoes abnormal changes.

VAIN is relatively rare than cervical dysplasia. It is typically found in women of 40 and 60 years, although it can occur at any age.

Symptoms and Risk Factors

Women with VAIN usually don’t have any signs. Risk factors associated with VAIN are:

  • Exposure to the drug DES while in the mother’s womb.
  • HPV infection
  • History of cervical dysplasia
  • History of cervical cancer
  • Tobacco use
  • The weak immune system from HIV


During a pelvic exam, the doctor performs a thorough examination of the vagina to look for VAIN. If a doctor sees some abnormal changes, then the doctor will recommend a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.

Colposcopy is also performed for a more thorough examination of the vagina.


The low-grade VAIN goes away on its own. The doctor recommends frequent examinations with pap tests and colposcopy every few months to make sure that they don’t progress to high-grade VAIN or vaginal cancer.

Treatment options for VAIN include the following:

Laser ablation: It is a minor procedure performed in the operating room under anaesthesia. It uses a laser beam to burn away the VAIN.

Topical therapy: In this therapy, medicine is applied to the area of VAIN. The medication is used for several weeks.

Surgical excision: In this procedure, the area of VAIN along with a small margin of normal tissue surrounding the VAIN is removed.

Radiation: In severe cases, radiation is used to kill abnormal cells.


Vulvar Dysplasia also called Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VIN), are abnormal changes in the skin of the vulva. The vulva includes the area outside of the opening of the vagina.


Women with VIN usually don’t have any symptoms, but the possible symptoms of VIN are:

  • Itching on the vulva
  • Visible changes in the colour of the skin of the vulva
  • Cracks or ulcers in the skin of the vulva
  • Growth on vulva skin that looks like a wart

Screening and Diagnosis

There are no screening tests for early detection of VIN. The diagnosis of VIN is made through a pelvic exam. The doctor performs a thorough examination of the vulva to look for VIN. If the doctor sees any abnormal changes, then he will perform a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.


Laser ablation: It is a minor procedure performed in the operating room under anaesthesia. It uses a laser beam to burn away the VIN.

Topical therapy: In this therapy, medicine is applied to the area of VIN. The medication is used for several weeks.

Surgical excision: In this procedure, the area of VIN along with a small margin of normal tissue surrounding the VIN is removed.

Why Motherhood?

At Motherhood, the doctors collaborate as team members, so you don’t get just one opinion, you get multiple opinions. Our surgeons are part of the team of doctors who work together to solve patients’ problems.

At Motherhood, we focus on maintaining a family-like atmosphere which gives you the comfort and security of knowing that you are an important patient.

Motherhood provides a vast array of medical services such as Maternity, Gynaecology, Paediatrics, Neonatology, Cosmetology, Fertility, Laparoscopy Surgeries, Endocrinology, 24/7 Laboratory Services, Dermatology, General Surgery for Women, Radiology & Foetal Medicine, Physiotherapy & Lamaze, and Breast Health.


Patient Story

In the hospital everyone is very nice and caring. They maintain a good atmosphere for the patients . I am very thankful to all the staff for making the environment so friendly. Especially I would

Read more

Mrs. Nimita Prasad

After coming to this hospital I have found my happiness. I consulted many hospitals and I have not conceived in any of the hospitals, but now I am 3 months pregnant from IUI being done

Read more

Shwetha B R

Visiting Motherhood was a best experience, it has the good environment. The doctor in this hospital is very good and staffs are also good. Dr. Sunil Eshwar is one of the expertized doctor and his

Read more


I am Dr. Swapna and my husband name is Venkat its been 10years of married life we have no kids and we visited Dr. sunil sir for IVF Treatment and sir explained us treatment procedures

Read more

Dr. Swapna Sri. K

Hi, I am Sowmya, I am feeling very happy after consulting Dr. Smrithi. I have conceived. I had lost all the hope of conceiving as I am a Thyroid patient. Dr. Smrithi’s advises made me

Read more

Ms. Soumya

Its been a long journey since we get to know we are going to be parents and at the same time we had a sense of concern about choosing a Gynaec & a good Hospital.

Read more

Mr. & Mrs. Raut

The ANC classes provided by Dr. Kritika (Physiotherapist) in Motherhood Hospital are really good.The classes helps you in staying active, fit & soothes the pregnancy related pains. The doctor is also very nice and interactive,

Read more

Mrs. Kanika Lohani

I was both happy and worried when I got pregnant. The test came positive and added a hundred doubts. One thing I decided was to find a good hospital and stick to it throughout the pregnancy.

Read more

Mr & Mrs. Amaraja Naik

Words won’t be enough to thank Dr. sunil & Motherhood, we approached Dr. sunil after losing all the hopes from other hospitals. People used to say miracle happens, and now I believe in it, at

Read more

Mrs. Anjali Vineeth

I was under treatment by Dr. Sunil for my Pregnancy and we came to motherhood because of him only as I wanted my delivery to be with him and I am very happy thanks to

Read more

Swati Agarwal
Hear from Our Patients

Visual Tour of Our Facility

at Motherhood India Hospitals


State-of-the-art operation theatres, manned by a team of experienced technicians, nurses, anaesthesiologist and leading surgeons.

Our Labour, Delivery and Recovery (LDR) rooms are designed to ensure the comforts of home but they’re also well-equipped with all the medical technology essential to ensure a safe delivery.


Executive / Suite Rooms: International standard suite rooms for expecting mothers and their families. These suite rooms are designed to offer best-in-class facilities for mother and child.



Stay updated on our latest packages, offer, news, new launch, and more. Enter your email id to subscribe to our newsletter.