Lower Genital Tract Dysplasia


Lower genital tract diseases are abnormal changes in the lower portion of the female reproductive system, which includes the cervix, vulva, and vagina. These abnormal changes are called pre-cancerous lesions, or intraepithelial neoplasia.


It is defined as an abnormal change in the surface of the cervix which is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.


Almost all cases of cervical dysplasia are caused by high-risk types of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). It usually affects women of ages between 25 to 50, although it can occur at any age.

Risk factors

There are several risk factors associated with cervical dysplasia such as:

  • HPV infection
  • Sexuality history
  • Smoking
  • A weak immune system
  • Other sexually transmitted infections


Usually, women with cervical dysplasia don’t have any symptoms. Symptoms usually don’t start until the cervical dysplasia becomes cancer. Symptoms include:

  • Pelvic pain
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Vaginal bleeding after intercourse
  • Vaginal discharge with a foul odour


There are two tests for cervical dysplasia, Pap test, and HPV test. The pap smear test is performed during a pelvic exam. The American Cancer Society recommends starting cervical cancer screening at the age of 21, regardless of the age when a woman becomes sexually active.

If cervical dysplasia is suspected in the pap smear test, then your doctor will perform a thorough evaluation of the cervix with a colposcopy. In a colposcopy, the doctor will look at your cervix with an electric magnifying instrument to look for abnormal cells.


Treatment for lower genital tract diseases depends upon the type and severity of the dysplasia. If you have been found to have severe cervical dysplasia, then the doctor will recommend removing the affected area of dysplasia. The two most common procedures for removing areas of dysplasia are the Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP) or cold knife conisation.

The LEEP can be performed as an outpatient procedure or in the doctor’s room. The doctor will ask you to lie down on an examination table and put your feet in stirrups. Then an instrument called a speculum is inserted into the vagina to hold the vagina walls so that the doctor can view the inside of the vaginal walls and the cervix.

The cervix is numbed by injecting local anaesthesia in it. An electrically charged loop made of thin wire is inserted into the vagina and up to the cervix. The loop is passed across the cervix, removing the entire area of dysplasia.

Cold knife conisation is a minor surgery in which cone-shaped portion of the cervix is removed using a scalpel.


It is also called vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) which starts inside the vagina. It is a condition in which the vagina undergoes abnormal changes.

VAIN is relatively rare than cervical dysplasia. It is typically found in women of 40 and 60 years, although it can occur at any age.

Symptoms and Risk Factors

Women with VAIN usually don’t have any signs. Risk factors associated with VAIN are:

  • Exposure to the drug DES while in the mother’s womb.
  • HPV infection
  • History of cervical dysplasia
  • History of cervical cancer
  • Tobacco use
  • The weak immune system from HIV


During a pelvic exam, the doctor performs a thorough examination of the vagina to look for VAIN. If a doctor sees some abnormal changes, then the doctor will recommend a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.

Colposcopy is also performed for a more thorough examination of the vagina.


The low-grade VAIN goes away on its own. The doctor recommends frequent examinations with pap tests and colposcopy every few months to make sure that they don’t progress to high-grade VAIN or vaginal cancer.

Treatment options for VAIN include the following:

Laser ablation: It is a minor procedure performed in the operating room under anaesthesia. It uses a laser beam to burn away the VAIN.

Topical therapy: In this therapy, medicine is applied to the area of VAIN. The medication is used for several weeks.

Surgical excision: In this procedure, the area of VAIN along with a small margin of normal tissue surrounding the VAIN is removed.

Radiation: In severe cases, radiation is used to kill abnormal cells.


Vulvar Dysplasia also called Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VIN), is abnormal changes in the skin of the vulva. The vulva includes the area outside of the opening of the vagina.


Women with VIN usually don’t have any symptoms, but the possible symptoms of VIN are:

  • Itching on the vulva
  • Visible changes in the colour of the skin of the vulva
  • Cracks or ulcers in the skin of the vulva
  • Growth on vulva skin that looks like a wart

Screening and Diagnosis

There are no screening tests for early detection of VIN. The diagnosis of VIN is made through a pelvic exam. The doctor performs a thorough examination of the vulva to look for VIN. If the doctor sees any abnormal changes, then he will perform a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.


Laser ablation: It is a minor procedure performed in the operating room under anaesthesia. It uses a laser beam to burn away the VIN.

Topical therapy: In this therapy, medicine is applied to the area of VIN. The medication is used for several weeks.

Surgical excision: In this procedure, the area of VIN along with a small margin of normal tissue surrounding the VIN is removed.

Why Motherhood?

At Motherhood, the doctors ask one another for advice. They collaborate as team members, so you don’t get just one opinion, you get multiple opinions. Our surgeons are part of the team of doctors who work together to solve patients’ problems.

At Motherhood, we focus on maintaining a family-like atmosphere which gives you the comfort and security of knowing you are an important patient.

Motherhood provides a vast array of medical services such as Maternity, Gynaecology, Paediatrics, Neonatology, Cosmetology, Fertility, Laparoscopy Surgeries, Endocrinology, 24/7 Laboratory Services, Dermatology, General Surgery for Women, Radiology & Foetal Medicine, Physiotherapy & Lamaze, and Breast Health.


Patient Story

The hospital is good, thanks to Dr. Sunil Eashwar sir for helping us to make our dream come true with his excellent advice and on time treatment. Motherhood has helped me embrace a journey to become a mother. Thanks to all the staff.

Vanitha K

Dr. Sunil Eashwar is a very good doctor. I’m happy to be guided by doctor and such a professionalist. I feel he is the best doctor. Firstly, I met Dr. Eshwar and he told me to get HSG test. I got to know that my fallopian tubes were blocked. Later, I underwent laproscopic hystonomy and […]

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I am Syed Sidra. We had come to Motherhood, Indiranagar from Tukur. I delivered a baby girl but after 4 days, the baby developed chest infection. Few of my relatives told me about this hospital and so we got my baby to Motherhood. On the way, baby’s condition became worse. It was then Dr Ankur […]

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Indrani Singh

I was very much blessed and pleased with my experience with Dr Regina, an obstetrician and gynaecologist at Motherhood Hospitals. The doctor responded to all of our queries. Our family is delighted. I would like to tell this to other mothers. On behalf of my newly born little champion and my family, I salute and […]

Uma Kamal

The hospital has well-experienced doctors and expert gynaecologists and paediatricians. The staff professionalism is exhibited in their duty with compassionate care towards the patient. I would like to share an experience with Dr Aarthi Bharath. I am very happy with Dr Aarthi mam as she is one of the excellent doctors. I have been consulting […]


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My due date was 3rd April and my husband had made arrangements in Motherhood- HRBR, as we had a good experience during our earlier visit for my mother’s surgery. On 9th March 8pm, we were informed that an emergency delivery would be needed. My husband contacted Ms Rama from Motherhood, who scheduled the delivery for […]

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I am Mrs Kavitha Sathyavelu living in Bangalore, Banaswadi. I had a great experience @ Motherhood Hospital. On my first delivery we had a good support from all the staff and doctors who had supported in all ways. Specially this hospital was referred by Dr Merlin. I thank to Dr Merlin who made my dream […]

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