Adenomyosis: Causes and treatment

Adenomyosis (ad-uh-no-my-O-sis) happens when the endometrial tissue that typically borders the uterus develops into the muscular wall of the uterus. During each menstrual cycle, the misplaced tissue continues to function normally, thickening, breaking down and bleeding. An enlarged uterus and painful, heavy periods are possible outcomes.

The aetiology of adenomyosis is unknown, however, the illness normally disappears following menopause. Hormonal therapies can assist ladies who are suffering from severe adenomyosis pain. Adenomyosis is cured by removing the uterus (hysterectomy).

What is the cause of adenomyosis?

Researchers are baffled as to why some people get adenomyosis and what causes it. However, other evidence shows that adenomyosis may be caused by hormones, genetics, or inflammation/trauma. Adenomyosis is more frequent in women and adults AFAB between the ages of 40 and 50:

  • Have had at least one child.
  • Have undergone previous uterine procedures, such as fibroid removal or dilation and curettage? (D&C).
  • Endometriosis is present.
  • However, clinicians are increasingly identifying adenomyosis in adults in their 30s who have irregular vaginal bleeding or painful periods.

What symptoms indicate adenomyosis?

One in every three patients with adenomyosis has no indications or symptoms. Some persons have the following symptoms:

  • Menstrual pains that are excruciating (dysmenorrhea).
  • Heavy menstrual flow (menorrhagia).
  • Menstruation is abnormal.
  • Pelvic discomfort accompanied by severe cramps.
  • Intercourse that hurts (dyspareunia).
  • Infertility.
  • Uterus enlargement.
  • Bloating or abdominal fullness (adenomyosis belly)

What exactly is the distinction between adenomyosis and endometriosis?

There are similarities and distinctions between adenomyosis and endometriosis. Adenomyosis occurs when cells lining the uterus develop into the uterine muscle. Endometriosis causes these cells to proliferate outside of the uterus, occasionally on the ovaries and fallopian tubes.

These two illnesses are equally common, while endometriosis is more common in women in their 30s and 40sTrusted Source, whereas adenomyosis is more common in women aged 40-50 years. Endometriosis and adenomyosis can coexist in the same person. Both illnesses’ symptoms should fade following menopause.

How is adenomyosis identified?

Adenomyosis is frequently suspected by healthcare professionals based on your symptoms and one or more of the following tests:

  1. Pelvic exam: Your physician may detect that your uterus has grown bigger, softer, or is unpleasant to the touch during a pelvic check.
  2. Transvaginal ultrasounds employ sound waves to create pictures of your pelvic organs. These pictures may occasionally indicate uterine wall thickening.
  3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans can reveal uterine growth and thickness in specific parts of your uterus.
  4. A biopsy may be used by your doctor to rule out more severe disorders. Your physician extracts tissue and analyses it for symptoms of more serious disorders during a biopsy.

When should you consult a doctor?

A person who is not attempting to conceive or who is not having any symptoms may not need therapy. Anyone who believes they have adenomyosis should consult their doctor.

It is critical that a person consults with their doctor if they are having heavy periods or significant uterine cramps. These symptoms may indicate additional serious diseases; thus, it is critical that the doctor does an assessment to discover the reason.